Module 4 - Reports & Documents is a compendium of relevant documents meant to provide a balanced introduction to the sector and to lead the reader to other resources. (It is not a dumping ground for everything published in the energy for development space.) These documents also contain much of the reference data used elsewhere in the toolkit... Ever wonder where that 1.4 billion number for people without electricity appeared and why some think it understates the real number by 500 million?

Big Picture Documents
Mid-Level Documents
Specific Documents
Sample Working Documents

We begin with the big picture, captured in our first four documents:

1. The World Energy Outlook 2008 summarizes mainstream thinking by the International Energy Agency. It tells us things such as the required investment to upgrade the world's energy system -- $26 trillion by 2030 -- and "guesstimates" of the premium needed to reach such goals as 450 parts per million CO2 stabilization ($9 trillion more). It is good baseline, quotable data. Some outlooks, such as 2004, have specific chapters on energy for development and estimates of unelectrified households.

2. Early in the new century Sir Mark Moody-Stuart and Corrado Clini served as Chairmen of the G8 Renewable Energy Task Force which set forth, in quite a bit of detail, what a program to bring renewable energy to 800 million people in developing countries would entail. The Chairmen's Report Annexes are quite rich.

3. Each year, the Human Development Report provides both useful information and commentary on "how we are doing" in a way that can provide excellent context for setting priorities at the regional and country level. Supplementing this information with poverty-related analysis (Gini index, for example) can get us past the macro level of information to address such important questions as rural-urban energy disparity.

4. Periodically, a Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) is published by UNEP in collaboration with a large group of organizations. GEO 4, "Environment for Development," was published in 2007 and contains a fairly elaborate but easy to follow set of scenarios (Chapter 9, The Future Today).

From these reference materials the following mid-level documents can prove useful:

5. On Climate: Climate Change 2007, The Physical Science Basis, IPCC summary for policy makers.

6. On MDGs (Millenium Development Goals): Energy Services for the MDGs, Modi et al, UNDP.

7. On Gender: Energia's "Where Energy is Women's Business" & UNDP's (2004) "Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development: A Toolkit and Resource Guide" .

Moving on, there are a number of works that deal with specific topics, projects and programs that, taken together, provide a rounded picture of the field.

8. Rogers et al (Navigant) produced Innovation in Rural Energy Delivery, which makes the case for the conditions needed for SMEs to succeed, especially in regard to the need for innovation funding and support.

9. World Bank Electrification Reassessment presents the results of an evaluation of the costs and benefits of efforts to date.

10. Three evaluation documents present something of a cross-section of efforts in UNDP's multi-function platform, FENERCA and AREED, (for more information on each of these, please refer to the Case Studies), each offering views on the needs of a variety of initiatives. These reports are informative when looked at through the lens of a balanced Technology-Policy-Enterprise approach as well as through the Enterprise-Customer matrix.

11. The SEEP network has produced a report (Morris et al, 2007), "Using Microfinance to Expand Access to Energy Services"that surveys existing microlending practices for improved energy across the world and consolidates lessons learned from those experiences.

Documents posted from above:

Sample Working Documents:

Carbon: Emissions reduction purchase agreement templates for compliance and voluntary markets (World Bank).

Investment Documents:

Power Purchase Agreement: (Template from RETScreen)